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  mysqldump MySQL command-line tool
     
  Add Date : 2017-08-31      
         
       
         
  Mysqldump MySQL is a command-line tool for logical backup. Respectively, and can export the database table structure and data into a table: create database, create table, insert sql statement into the. Of course, you can export stored procedures, triggers, functions, scheduled events (events). Whether a programmer or a DBA tools are frequently used.

1. mysqldump --help

Many mysqldump options, we look for his help documentation:

mysqldump Ver 10.13 Distrib 5.6.26, for linux-glibc2.5 (i686)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and / or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and / or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Dumping structure and contents of MySQL databases and tables.
Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3 ...]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:
/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~ / .my.cnf
The following groups are read: mysqldump client
The following options may be given as the first argument:
--print-defaults Print the program argument list and exit.
--no-defaults Do not read default options from any option file,
                        except for login file.
--defaults-file = # Only read default options from the given file #.
--defaults-extra-file = # Read this file after the global files are read.
--defaults-group-suffix = #
                        Also read groups with concat (group, suffix)
--login-path = # Read this path from the login file.
  -A, --all-Databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases
                      with all databases selected.
  -Y, --all-Tablespaces
                      Dump all the tablespaces.
  -y, --no-tablespaces
                      Do not dump any tablespace information.
  --add-drop-database Add a DROP DATABASE before each create.
  --add-drop-table Add a DROP TABLE before each create.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-drop-table to disable.)
  --add-drop-trigger Add a DROP TRIGGER before each create.
  --add-locks Add locks around INSERT statements.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-locks to disable.)
  --allow-keywords Allow creation of column names that are keywords.
  --apply-slave-statements
                      Adds' STOP SLAVE 'prior to' CHANGE MASTER 'and' START
                      SLAVE 'to bottom of dump.
  --bind-address = name IP address to bind to.
  --character-sets-dir = name
                      Directory for character set files.
  -i, --comments Write additional information.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-comments to disable.)
  --compatible = name Change the dump to be compatible with a given mode. By
                      default tables are dumped in a format optimized for
                      . MySQL Legal modes are: ansi, mysql323, mysql40,
                      postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options,
                      no_table_options, no_field_options. One can use several
                      modes separated by commas Note:. Requires MySQL server
                      version 4.1.0 or higher. This option is ignored with
                      earlier server versions.
  --compact Give less verbose output (useful for debugging). Disables
                      structure comments and header / footer constructs. Enables
                      options --skip-add-drop-table --skip-add-locks
                      --skip-comments --skip-disable-keys --skip-set-charset.
  -c, --complete-insert
                      Use complete insert statements.
  -C, --compress Use compression in server / client protocol.
  -a, --create-options
                      Include all MySQL specific create options.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-create-options to disable.)
  . -B, --databases Dump several databases Note the difference in usage; in
                      this case no tables are given. All name arguments are
                      . Regarded as database names 'USE db_name;' will be
                      included in the output.
  -. #, --debug [= #] This is a non-debug version Catch this and exit.
  --debug-check Check memory and open file usage at exit.
  --debug-info Print some debug info at exit.
  --default-character-set = name
                      Set the default character set.
  --delayed-insert Insert rows with INSERT DELAYED.
  --delete-master-logs
                      Delete logs on master after backup. This automatically
                      enables --master-data.
  ! -K, --disable-Keys' / * 40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name DISABLE KEYS * /; and
                      ! '/ * 40000 ALTER TABLE tb_name ENABLE KEYS * /; will be put
                      in the output.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-disable-keys to disable.)
  --dump-slave [= #] This causes the binary log position and filename of the
                      master to be appended to the dumped data output. Setting
                      the value to 1, will printit as a CHANGE MASTER command
                      in the dumped data output; if equal to 2, that command
                      will be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will
                      turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
                      specified too (in which case a global read lock is only
                      taken a short time at the beginning of the dump - do not
                      forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all
                      cases any action on logs will happen at the exact moment
                      of the dump.Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.
  -E, --events Dump events.
  -e, --extended-insert
                      Use multiple-row INSERT syntax that include several
                      VALUES lists.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-extended-insert to disable.)
  --fields-terminated-by = name
                      Fields in the output file are terminated by the given
                      string.
  --fields-enclosed-by = name
                      Fields in the output file are enclosed by the given
                      character.
  --fields-optionally-enclosed-by = name
                      Fields in the output file are optionally enclosed by the
                      given character.
  --fields-escaped-by = name
                      Fields in the output file are escaped by the given
                      character.
  -F, --flush-Logs Flush logs file in server before starting dump. Note that
                      if you dump many databases at once (using the option
                      --databases = or --all-databases), the logs will be
                      flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when
                      using --lock-all-tables or --master-data: in this case
                      the logs will be flushed only once, corresponding to the
                      moment all tables are locked. So if you want your dump
                      and the log flush to happen at the same exact moment you
                      should use --lock-all-tables or --master-data with
                      --flush-logs.
  --flush-privileges Emit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping the mysql
                      database. This option should be used any time the dump
                      contains the mysql database and any other database that
                      depends on the data in the mysql database for proper
                      restore.
  -f, --force Continue even if we get an SQL error.
  - ?, --help Display this help message and exit.
  --hex-blob Dump binary strings (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB) in
                      hexadecimal format.
  -h, --host = name Connect to host.
  --ignore-table = name Do not dump the specified table. To specify more than one
                      table to ignore, use the directive multiple times, once
                      for each table. Each table must be specified with both
                      database and table names, e.g.,
                      --ignore-table = database.table.
  --include-master-host-port
                      Adds' MASTER_HOST = < host>, MASTER_PORT = < port> 'to' CHANGE
                      MASTER TO .. 'in dump produced with --dump-slave.
  --insert-ignore Insert rows with INSERT IGNORE.
  --lines-terminated-by = name
                      Lines in the output file are terminated by the given
                      string.
  -x, --lock-all-tables
                      Locks all tables across all databases. This is achieved
                      by taking a global read lock for the duration of the
                      whole dump. Automatically turns --single-transaction and
                      --lock-tables off.
  -l, --lock-tables Lock all tables for read.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-lock-tables to disable.)
  --log-error = name Append warnings and errors to given file.
  --master-data [= #] This causes the binary log position and filename to be
                      appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a
                      CHANGE MASTER command; if equal to 2, that command will
                      be prefixed with a comment symbol. This option will turn
                      --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is
                      specified too (in which case a global read lock is only
                      taken a short time at the beginning of the dump; do not
                      forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all
                      cases, any action on logs will happen at the exact moment
                      of the dump. Option automatically turns --lock-tables
                      off.
  --max-allowed-packet = #
                      The maximum packet length to send to or receive from
                      server.
  --net-buffer-length = #
                      The buffer size for TCP / IP and socket communication.
  --no-autocommit Wrap tables with autocommit / commit statements.
  -n, --no-create-db Suppress the CREATE DATABASE ... IF EXISTS statement that
                      normally is output for each dumped database if
                      --all-databases or --databases is given.
  -t, --no-create-info
                      Do not write table creation info.
  -d, --no-data No row information.
  -N, --no-Set-names Same as --skip-set-charset.
  --opt Same as --add-drop-table, --add-locks, --create-options,
                      --quick, --extended-insert, --lock-tables, --set-charset,
                      and --disable-keys. Enabled by default, disable with
                      --skip-opt.
  --order-by-primary Sorts each table's rows by primary key, or first unique
                      key, if such a key exists. Useful when dumping a MyISAM
                      table to be loaded into an InnoDB table, but will make
                      the dump itself take considerably longer.
  -p, --password [= name]
                      Password to use when connecting to server. If password is
                      not given it's solicited on the tty.
  -P, --port = # Port number to use for connection.
  --protocol = name The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe,
                      memory).
  -q, --quick Do not buffer query, dump directly to stdout.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-quick to disable.)
  -Q, --quote-Names Quote table and column names with backticks ( `).
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-quote-names to disable.)
  --replace Use REPLACE INTO instead of INSERT INTO.
  -r, --result-file = name
                      Direct output to a given file. This option should be used
                      in systems (e.g., DOS, Windows) that use carriage-return
                      linefeed pairs (\ r \ n) to separate text lines. This option
                      ensures that only a single newline is used.
  -R, --routines Dump stored routines (functions and procedures).
  --set-charset Add 'SET NAMES default_character_set' to the output.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-set-charset to disable.)
  --set-gtid-purged [= name]
                      Add 'SET @@ GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED' to the output. Possible
                      values for this option are ON, OFF and AUTO. If ON is
                      used and GTIDs are not enabled on the server, an error is
                      generated. If OFF is used, this option does nothing. If
                      AUTO is used and GTIDs are enabled on the server, 'SET
                      @@ GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED 'is added to the output. If GTIDs
                      are disabled, AUTO does nothing. If no value is supplied
                      then the default (AUTO) value will be considered.
  --single-transaction
                      Creates a consistent snapshot by dumping all tables in a
                      single transaction. Works ONLY for tables stored in
                      storage engines which support multiversioning (currently
                      only InnoDB does); the dump is NOT guaranteed to be
                      consistent for other storage engines. While a
                      --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a
                      valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log
                      position), no other connection should use the following
                      statements: ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE,
                      TRUNCATE TABLE, as consistent snapshot is not isolated
                      from them. Option automatically turns off --lock-tables.
  --dump-date Put a dump date to the end of the output.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-dump-date to disable.)
  --skip-opt Disable --opt. Disables --add-drop-table, --add-locks,
                      --create-options, --quick, --extended-insert,
                      --lock-tables, --set-charset, and --disable-keys.
  -S, --socket = Name The socket file to use for connection.
  --secure-auth Refuse client connecting to server if it uses old
                      (Pre-4.1.1) protocol.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-secure-auth to disable.)
  --ssl Enable SSL for connection (automatically enabled with
                      other flags).
  --ssl-ca = name CA file in PEM format (check OpenSSL docs, implies
                      --ssl).
  --ssl-capath = name CA directory (check OpenSSL docs, implies --ssl).
  --ssl-cert = name X509 cert in PEM format (implies --ssl).
  --ssl-cipher = name SSL cipher to use (implies --ssl).
  --ssl-key = name X509 key in PEM format (implies --ssl).
  --ssl-crl = name Certificate revocation list (implies --ssl).
  --ssl-crlpath = name Certificate revocation list path (implies --ssl).
  --ssl-verify-server-cert
                      Verify server's "Common Name" in its cert against
                      hostname used when connecting. This option is disabled by
                      default.
  -T, --tab = Name Create tab-separated textfile for each table to given
                      . Path (. Create .sql and .txt files) NOTE: This only works
                      if mysqldump is run on the same machine as the mysqld
                      server.
  --tables Overrides option --databases (-B).
  --triggers Dump triggers for each dumped table.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-triggers to disable.)
  --tz-utc SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' at top of dump to allow dumping of
                      TIMESTAMP data when a server has data in different time
                      zones or data is being moved between servers with
                      different time zones.
                      (Defaults to on; use --skip-tz-utc to disable.)
  -u, --user = name User for login if not current user.
  -v, --verbose Print info about the various stages.
  -V, --version Output version information and exit.
  -w, --where = name Dump only selected records. Quotes are mandatory.
  -X, --xml Dump a database as well formed XML.
  --plugin-dir = name Directory for client-side plugins.
  --default-auth = name Default authentication client-side plugin to use.

Variables (--variable-name = value)
and boolean options {FALSE | TRUE} Value (after reading options)
--------------------------------- ----------------- -----------------------
all-databases FALSE
all-tablespaces FALSE
no-tablespaces FALSE
add-drop-database FALSE
add-drop-table TRUE
add-drop-trigger FALSE
add-locks TRUE
allow-keywords FALSE
apply-slave-statements FALSE
bind-address (No default value)
character-sets-dir (No default value)
comments TRUE
compatible (No default value)
compact FALSE
complete-insert FALSE
compress FALSE
create-options TRUE
databases FALSE
debug-check FALSE
debug-info FALSE
default-character-set utf8
delayed-insert FALSE
delete-master-logs FALSE
disable-keys TRUE
dump-slave 0
events FALSE
extended-insert TRUE
fields-terminated-by (No default value)
fields-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-optionally-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-escaped-by (No default value)
flush-logs FALSE
flush-privileges FALSE
force FALSE
hex-blob FALSE
host (No default value)
include-master-host-port FALSE
insert-ignore FALSE
lines-terminated-by (No default value)
lock-all-tables FALSE
lock-tables TRUE
log-error (No default value)
master-data 0
max-allowed-packet 25165824
net-buffer-length 1046528
no-autocommit FALSE
no-create-db FALSE
no-create-info FALSE
no-data FALSE
order-by-primary FALSE
port 0
quick TRUE
quote-names TRUE
replace FALSE
routines FALSE
set-charset TRUE
single-transaction FALSE
dump-date TRUE
socket /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
secure-auth TRUE
ssl FALSE
ssl-ca (No default value)
ssl-capath (No default value)
ssl-cert (No default value)
ssl-cipher (No default value)
ssl-key (No default value)
ssl-crl (No default value)
ssl-crlpath (No default value)
ssl-verify-server-cert FALSE
tab (No default value)
triggers TRUE
tz-utc TRUE
user (No default value)
verbose FALSE
where (No default value)
plugin-dir (No default value)
default-auth (No default value)
Overall, the documentation is divided into two parts. A front part of the various options are described in, after a part is the default value mysqldump various options.

mysqldump has over many options, so that it is flexible and powerful. In order to better understand, he could be a multitude of options and parameters, according to their function to introduce into several categories.

Prior to this, we have to figure out all the values mysqldump default options, and their meaning.

2. mysqldump default options:
 
Variables (--variable-name = value)
and boolean options {FALSE | TRUE} Value (after reading options)
--------------------------------- ----------------- -----------------------
all-databases FALSE
all-tablespaces FALSE
no-tablespaces FALSE
add-drop-database FALSE
add-drop-table TRUE
add-drop-trigger FALSE
add-locks TRUE
allow-keywords FALSE
apply-slave-statements FALSE
bind-address (No default value)
character-sets-dir (No default value)
comments TRUE
compatible (No default value)
compact FALSE
complete-insert FALSE
compress FALSE
create-options TRUE
databases FALSE
debug-check FALSE
debug-info FALSE
default-character-set utf8
delayed-insert FALSE
delete-master-logs FALSE
disable-keys TRUE
dump-slave 0
events FALSE
extended-insert TRUE
fields-terminated-by (No default value)
fields-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-optionally-enclosed-by (No default value)
fields-escaped-by (No default value)
flush-logs FALSE
flush-privileges FALSE
force FALSE
hex-blob FALSE
host (No default value)
include-master-host-port FALSE
insert-ignore FALSE
lines-terminated-by (No default value)
lock-all-tables FALSE
lock-tables TRUE
log-error (No default value)
master-data 0
max-allowed-packet 25165824
net-buffer-length 1046528
no-autocommit FALSE
no-create-db FALSE
no-create-info FALSE
no-data FALSE
order-by-primary FALSE
port 0
quick TRUE
quote-names TRUE
replace FALSE
routines FALSE
set-charset TRUE
single-transaction FALSE
dump-date TRUE
socket /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
secure-auth TRUE
ssl FALSE
ssl-ca (No default value)
ssl-capath (No default value)
ssl-cert (No default value)
ssl-cipher (No default value)
ssl-key (No default value)
ssl-crl (No default value)
ssl-crlpath (No default value)
ssl-verify-server-cert FALSE
tab (No default value)
triggers TRUE
tz-utc TRUE
user (No default value)
verbose FALSE
where (No default value)
plugin-dir (No default value)
default-auth (No default value)
These defaults, some false, some true, some not default.

Our concern is by default true, which is open to me mysqldump default choice, and their specific meanings are as follows:

add-drop-table TRUE representation before generating a table structure statements, generate the corresponding DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `table_name`; statement
add-locks TRUE indicates generate LOCK TABLES `tab` WRITE prior generation data table insert into` table_name` values (...); statement
comments TRUE indicates generate notes, is that all - at the beginning of the description, such as: -. Dumping data for for table `tab` better enabled;
create-options TRUE indicates when generating table structure is generated: ENGINE = InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT = 827 DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8; additional options to build the table
! Default-character-set utf8 named statement: / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /; in the character set; you may need to change --default-character-set = utf8mb4
disable-keys TRUE representation before production insert statements generated:! / * 40000 ALTER TABLE `tbl` DISABLE KEYS * /; insert can accelerate the speed;
extended-insert TRUE indicates production insert is insert into `tbl` values (...), (...), the data line in accordance with net-buffer-length divided into a plurality of batch insert merge
lock-tables TRUE represented in the export process will lock all tables;
max-allowed-packet 25165824 maximum support 24M packets;
net-buffer-length 1046528 1M size of the socket buffer
quick TRUE indicates when exporting statements are not cached, direct output to the console or a file;
quote-names TRUE representation of the table and column names using the symbol `` package; they are to prevent an error when the keyword;
set-charset TRUE default-character-set = utf8 specify the character set, and --set-charset = 1/0 indicates whether to generate / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /!;
dump-date TRUE indicates whether to generate export time at the end of the export file: - Dump completed on 2015-09-15 11:15:10
secure-auth TRUE Analyzing indication login password new encryption algorithm, encryption algorithms refused
triggers TRUE indicates generated trigger script;
tz-utc TRUE indicates whether to generate:!! / * 40103 SET @OLD_TIME_ZONE = @@ TIME_ZONE * /; / * 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /;
If you want to close these open default option, you need to explicitly specify: mysqldump -uxxx -p aazj --extended-insert = 0 Users> Users.sql; = 0 indicates off option.

Above these default options, combined with a better example to understand:

- MySQL dump 10.13 Distrib 5.6.26, for linux-glibc2.5 (i686)
-
- Host: localhost Database: gs
- ------------------------------------------------ ------
- Server version 5.6.26-log

! / * 40101 SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT = @@ CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT * /;
! / * 40101 SET @OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS = @@ CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS * /;
! / * 40101 SET @OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION = @@ COLLATION_CONNECTION * /;
! / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /;
! / * 40103 SET @OLD_TIME_ZONE = @@ TIME_ZONE * /;
! / * 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /;
! / * 40014 SET @OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS = @@ UNIQUE_CHECKS, UNIQUE_CHECKS = 0 * /;
! / * 40014 SET @OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = @@ FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS, FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = 0 * /;
! / * 40101 SET @OLD_SQL_MODE = @@ SQL_MODE, SQL_MODE = 'NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO' * /;
! / * 40111 SET @OLD_SQL_NOTES = @@ SQL_NOTES, SQL_NOTES = 0 * /;

-
- Current Database: `gs`
-

!! CREATE DATABASE / * 32312 IF NOT EXISTS * / `gs` / * 40100 DEFAULT CHARACTER SET utf8mb4 COLLATE utf8mb4_bin * /;

USE `gs`;

-
- Table structure for table `user`
-

DROP TABLE IF EXISTS `user`;
! / * 40101 SET @saved_cs_client = @@ character_set_client * /;
! / * 40101 SET character_set_client = utf8 * /;
CREATE TABLE `user` (
  `Id` int (11) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  `Name` varchar (30) COLLATE utf8mb4_bin DEFAULT NULL,
  `Sex` tinyint (4) DEFAULT NULL,
  `Phone` varchar (20) COLLATE utf8mb4_bin DEFAULT NULL,
  `Addr` varchar (255) COLLATE utf8mb4_bin DEFAULT NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY ( `id`)
) ENGINE = InnoDB AUTO_INCREMENT = 4 DEFAULT CHARSET = utf8mb4 COLLATE = utf8mb4_bin;
! / * 40101 SET character_set_client = @saved_cs_client * /;

-
- Dumping data for table `user`
-

LOCK TABLES `user` WRITE;
! / * 40000 ALTER TABLE `user` DISABLE KEYS * /;
INSERT INTO `user` VALUES (1, 'yuanfang', 1, '14465463786', 'hangzhou'), (2, 'Andy', 0, '14465463786', 'beijing'), (3, 'peter', 0 , '14465463786', 'Hongkong');
! / * 40000 ALTER TABLE `user` ENABLE KEYS * /;
UNLOCK TABLES;
! / * 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = @ OLD_TIME_ZONE * /;

! / * 40101 SET SQL_MODE = @ OLD_SQL_MODE * /;
! / * 40014 SET FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS = @ OLD_FOREIGN_KEY_CHECKS * /;
! / * 40014 SET UNIQUE_CHECKS = @ OLD_UNIQUE_CHECKS * /;
! / * 40101 SET CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT = @ OLD_CHARACTER_SET_CLIENT * /;
! / * 40101 SET CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS = @ OLD_CHARACTER_SET_RESULTS * /;
! / * 40101 SET COLLATION_CONNECTION = @ OLD_COLLATION_CONNECTION * /;
! / * 40111 SET SQL_NOTES = @ OLD_SQL_NOTES * /;

- Dump completed on 2015-10-22 10:16:37

2. mysqldump login server related options

Default options are read from the following files in the given order:

/etc/my.cnf /etc/mysql/my.cnf /usr/local/mysql/etc/my.cnf ~ / .my.cnf


The following groups are read: mysqldump client
The following options may be given as the first argument:
--no-defaults Do not read default options from any option file, except for login file.
--defaults-file = # Only read default options from the given file #.
--defaults-extra-file = # Read this file after the global files are read.
--defaults-group-suffix = # Also read groups with concat (group, suffix)
--login-path = # Read this path from the login file.

1) mysqldump tool as a client, it will appeal to the directory to find my.cnf file, and then read the file in [mysqldump] and [client] options below;

2) those options defaults are related to additional specified configuration file and the log file, rarely used;

  -u, --user = name User for login if not current user.

  -p, --password [= name] Password to use when connecting to server. If password is not given it's solicited on the tty.

  -h, --host = name Connect to host.

  -P, --port = # Port number to use for connection.
  --protocol = name The protocol to use for connection (tcp, socket, pipe, memory).

  --max-allowed-packet = # The maximum packet length to send to or receive from server.
  --net-buffer-length = # The buffer size for TCP / IP and socket communication.

3) User Name This option specifies the number of login, password, mysqld IP address, port, protocol, etc. used for the connection.

    Commonly used is -h192.168.2.xx -uxxx -p, if mysqld is not the default port 3306, you need to use -Pxxx designated ports.

    --max-allowed-packet we generally arranged in the my.cnf. --net-buffer-length in order to optimize the network connection socket buffer.

Example of use: mysqldump -h192.168.1.20 -uxxx -p -P3057

3. mysqldump select the backup content related options

We can choose to back up all databases, a few databases, one database, one of a few tables in the database, one database in a table;

You can choose whether to back up stored procedures and functions, triggers, scheduling events.

1) Select the export database and table:

-A, --all-Databases Dump all the databases. This will be same as --databases with all databases selected.

. -B, --databases Dump several databases Note the difference in usage; in this case no tables are given All name arguments are.

. Regarded as database names 'USE db_name;' will be included in the output.

Table structure and data in the table database [tables] Export of database database;

2) Select whether to export the library, building table statements, whether to export data in the table:

-n, --no-create-db Suppress the CREATE DATABASE ... IF NOT EXISTS statement that normally is output for each dumped database if

--all-databases or --databases is given (not building a database export statement: CREATE DATABASE, which is non-conducting library structure).

-t, --no-create-info Do not write table creation info. (do not export the table to build the statement)

-d, --no-data No row information. (no export data, sometimes we just need to export table structure, which is the construction of the table statement on the line)

3) Choose whether to export stored procedures and functions, triggers, scheduled events:

-R, --routines Dump stored routines (functions and procedures). (Exporting stored procedures and functions)

--triggers Dump triggers for each dumped table (Defaults to on; use --skip-triggers to disable.). (export trigger)

--skip-triggers are not exported trigger

-E, --events Dump events. Export scheduled events (selected according to the purpose of backup, if it is to build a slave, then do not export the events.)

4) specifies that no export a table in a library:

--ignore-table = name Do not dump the specified table. To specify more than one table to ignore, use the directive multiple times,

once for each table. Each table must be specified with both database and table names,

e.g., --ignore-table = database.table. (when exporting databases, exclude export a table or a few)

5) in accordance with conditions where export:

  -w, --where = 'where_condition' Dump only selected records. Quotes are mandatory.

6) Example of use:

Dumping structure and contents of MySQL databases and tables.
Usage: mysqldump [OPTIONS] database [tables]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --databases [OPTIONS] DB1 [DB2 DB3 ...]
OR mysqldump [OPTIONS] --all-databases [OPTIONS]

1> Export single table structure and data: mysqldump -uxxx -p db1 tb1> tb1.sql; export the database table structure tb1 db1 tables and data in the table;

2> Export Multiple Tables structure and data: mysqldump -uxxx -p db1 tb1 tb2> tb1_tb2.sql; Export database db1 tables tb1, table structure and data in the table tb2;

Structure 3> Export single table: mysqldump -uxxx -p --no-data db1 tb1> tb1.sql; Export table structure in database db1 table tb1 of; in fact, can also be used: show create table tb1

4> we can not use mysqldump reach export only one or a few data tables, without exporting construction of the table statement purposes.

    But we can use select * from table into outfile 'file.sql', such as: select * from Users into outfile '/tmp/Users.sql'; attention to the need write access to a directory.

5> Export database structure in a single library, table structure, table data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --databases db1> db1.sql

6> Export structure more libraries in the library, table structure, table data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --databases db1 db2> db1_db2.sql

7> Export in a single database structure, database table structure, not the table data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --no-data --databases db1> db1.sql

8> Export data in a single database, not the library structure and table structure: mysqldump -uxxx -p --no-create-db --no-create-info --databases db1> db1.sql

9> Export plurality of database structures, database table structure, not the table data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --no-data --databases db1 db2> db1_db2.sql

10> Export Library structure of all database library table structure and data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --all-databases> all.sql

11> Export database database structure, table structure to all libraries, not data: mysqldump -uxxx -p --all-databases --no-data> all.sql

12> Export single library database structure, table structure, table data, excluding a table: mysqldump -uxxx -p --databases db1 --ignore-table = db1.test> db1.sql

4. mysqldump transactions and data consistency (lock) the relevant options

When using mysqldump logical backup, transactions and data consistency is vital option.

1) --single-transaction
      Creates a consistent snapshot by dumping all tables in a single transaction. Works ONLY for tables stored in storage engines which

      support multiversioning (currently only InnoDB does); the dump is NOT guaranteed to be consistent for other storage engines.

      While a --single-transaction dump is in process, to ensure a valid dump file (correct table contents and binary log position), no other

      connection should use the following statements: ALTER TABLE, DROP TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, as consistent

      snapshot is not isolated from them. Option automatically turns off --lock-tables.

    --single-transaction consistent results can be exported. He is the behavior by exporting into a transaction to an end.

    There are some requirements: only innodb engine; export process, can not have any person to perform alter table, drop table, rename table, truncate table and other DDL statements.

    --single-transaction will automatically shut --lock-tables option; we said above mysqldump default open --lock-tables, it will lock all tables during the export process.

    Because --single-transaction will automatically shut --lock-tables, so alone --single-transaction will not use locks. Combination lock with only --master-data.

2) - lock-tables

    This option is turned on by default, it has been said above. Its role is to lock all tables during the export process. --single-transaction and --lock-all-tables will turn off this option.

3) - lock-all-tables
      Locks all tables across all databases. This is achieved by taking a global read lock for the duration of the whole dump.
      Automatically turns --single-transaction and --lock-tables off. With this option enabled, it will automatically turn off --single-transaction and --lock-tables.

The above three options, only --lock-tables turned on by default; open --single-transaction or open --lock-all-tables will be closed --lock-tables and --lock-all-tables will. automatic shut --single-transaction and --lock-tables. So the three are mutually exclusive. We should only be enabled once one of the options.

4) - flush-logs

        Flush logs file in server before starting dump. Note that if you dump many databases at once (using the option --databases = or

        --all-databases), the logs will be flushed for each database dumped. The exception is when using --lock-all-tables or

        --master-data: in this case the logs will be flushed only once, corresponding to the moment all tables are locked So if you want your.

      dump and the log flush to happen at the same exact moment you should use --lock-all-tables or --master-data with --flush-logs.

      In order to obtain export data and refresh the log consistency (simultaneous) must be --flush-logs option and --lock-all-tables or --master-data used previously:

      mysqldump --flush-logs --lock-all-tables; mysqldump --flush-logs --master-data = 2;

5) - flush-privileges

      Emit a FLUSH PRIVILEGES statement after dumping the mysql database. This option should be used any time the dump contains the

      mysql database and any other database that depends on the data in the mysql database for proper restore.

      How to export data includes mysql, you should enable this option. This option will be later exported mysql database plus flush privileges statement because the statement is inert to the mysql database

      After that, you must use the flush privileges, or permissions do not take effect.

6) --master-data [= #]

      This causes the binary log position and filename to be appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a CHANGE MASTER

      command; if equal to 2, that command will be prefixed with a comment symbol This option will turn --lock-all-tables on, unless.

      --single-transaction is specified too (in which case a global read lock is only taken a short time at the beginning of the dump; do not
      forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all cases, any action on logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump.

      Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.

In order to obtain consistent and backup data in the backup is concurrently updated binary log, we should use these options (perfect combination) combination as follows:

mysqldump -uxxx -pxxx --single-transaction --master-data = 2 --flush-logs --routines --databases db1> db1.sql;

(Wherein --flush-logs not required; when you build slave, do not export events, but need to export rountines.)

Which opened --master-data --lock-all-tables option, --single-transaction has been closed out. --flush-logs can be achieved by means of --master-data export once, even when more than one database, which is flush binary log at the same point in time, not every database flush once. And this time point and --master-data record binary log position and binary log file is the same point in time, these are the use of a short time using a global --single-transaction and --master-data combined reading lock to achieve the objective.

5. mysqldump copy of the relevant options

1) --master-data [= #]

      This causes the binary log position and filename to be appended to the output. If equal to 1, will print it as a CHANGE MASTER

      command; if equal to 2, that command will be prefixed with a comment symbol This option will turn --lock-all-tables on, unless.

      --single-transaction is specified too (in which case a global read lock is only taken a short time at the beginning of the dump;

      do not forget to read about --single-transaction below). In all cases, any action on logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump.

      Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.

      This option has been described above. --master-data = 1 indicates exported change master to the statement, - master-data = 2 comments on this statement, the default is zero.

      And --single-transaction generally used together to build a master-slave environment.

Here is --master-data = 1 and Comparative --master-data = 2:

About 30 rows exported file before you can see the change master to the statement. You can use the head -n 30 db1.sql View

2) --dump-slave [= #]

      This causes the binary log position and filename of the master to be appended to the dumped data output. Setting the value to 1, will

      printit as a CHANGE MASTER command in the dumped data output; if equal to 2, that command will be prefixed with a comment

      symbol. This option will turn --lock-all-tables on, unless --single-transaction is specified too (in which case a global read lock is only

      taken a short time at the beginning of the dump - do not forget to read about --single-transaction below) In all cases any action on.

      logs will happen at the exact moment of the dump.Option automatically turns --lock-tables off.

      --dump-slave and --master-data is almost the same. The difference is only --dump-slave for the slave to establish the next stage slave; and --master-data used to establish a master slave;

      If the master --dump-slave will get an error: mysqldump: Could not execute 'START SLAVE': The server is not configured as slave;

3) --apply-slave-statements
      Adds 'STOP SLAVE' prior to 'CHANGE MASTER' and 'START SLAVE' to bottom of dump.

      In the change master exporting stop slave statement after the change master exporting start slave sentence. In fact, it is an automated process. And --master-data = 1 is similar.

Beginning there stop slave, at the end there start slave statement:

4) - include-master-host-port
      Adds 'MASTER_HOST = , MASTER_PORT = ' to 'CHANGE MASTER TO ..' in dump produced with --dump-slave.

      The choice to combine --dump-slave = 1/2 use. You will join the host in the export.

5) - include-master-host-port
    Adds 'MASTER_HOST = , MASTER_PORT = ' to 'CHANGE MASTER TO ..' in dump produced with --dump-slave.

    The choice to combine --dump-slave = 1/2 use. You will join the mysql port in the export.

6) - delete-master-logs
    Delete logs on master after backup. This automatically enables --master-data.

    After the backup, remove binary log master on. This option automatically opens --master-data option (equal to 2). This option generally do not. Log in general can not just delete.

7) - set-gtid-purged [= name]
    Add 'SET @@ GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED' to the output. Possible values for this option are ON, OFF and AUTO. If ON is used and GTIDs

    are not enabled on the server, an error is generated. If OFF is used, this option does nothing. If AUTO is used and GTIDs are enabled

    on the server, 'SET @@ GLOBAL.GTID_PURGED' is added to the output. If GTIDs are disabled, AUTO does nothing. If no value is

    supplied then the default (AUTO) value will be considered.

    This option is used to enable the environment GTID properties.

Related options 6. mysqldump character set

1) - set-charset

    Add 'SET NAMES default_character_set' to the output (Defaults to on; use --skip-set-charset to disable.).

    --set-charset = 1/0 on and off. You can also use --skip-set-charset closed.

  This option has been said above us. It indicates whether to generate / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /!;

2) -N, --no-set-names

    . Same as --skip-set-charset Close --set-charset does not generate / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /;.! Statement.

3) - default-character-set = name
    Set the default character set.

    This option is also related to the above. ! Specify the statement: / * 40101 SET NAMES utf8 * /; in the character set; you may need to change --default-character-set = utf8mb4

7. mysqldump Controls whether DDL statements related options

  --add-drop-database Add a DROP DATABASE before each create.
  --add-drop-table Add a DROP TABLE before each create (Defaults to on; use --skip-add-drop-table to disable.).
  --add-drop-trigger Add a DROP TRIGGER before each create.

  --no-create-db, -n

  --no-create-info, -t

8. mysqldump export formats related options

1) - compatible = name

    Change the dump to be compatible with a given mode. By default tables are dumped in a format optimized for MySQL.

    Legal modes are: ansi, mysql323, mysql40, postgresql, oracle, mssql, db2, maxdb, no_key_options, no_table_options,

    . No_field_options One can use several modes separated by commas Note:. Requires MySQL server version 4.1.0 or higher.

    This option is ignored with earlier server versions.

    Export sql statement compatible format. If we need to export from MySQL, and then imported into other databases, you can use this option. --compatible = oracle / postgresql / mssql

2) -Q, --quote-names

    Quote table and column names with backticks ( `). (Defaults to on;. Use --skip-quote-names to disable)

    The table and column names use the `` package. In case they are being given keyword.

Related options 9. mysqldump error handling

1) -f, --force Continue even if we get an SQL error.

2) - log-error = name Append warnings and errors to given file.

10. mysqldump principle

In order to explore mysqldump backup is how to achieve, we need [mysqld] in the my.cnf parameter section is added:

general_log = on
general_log_file = general.log
So that we can observe general.log output mysqldump backup to understand is how to achieve.

1) - lock-tables is how to achieve:

Perform: mysqldump -uroot -p --databases gs --lock-tables> gs_l.sql, then view general.log:

                    3 Init DB gs
                    3 Query SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`
                    3 Query show tables
                    3 Query LOCK TABLES `tb1` READ / *! 32311 LOCAL * /,` user` READ / *! 32311 LOCAL * /
                    3 Query show table status like 'tb1'
                    3 Query SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE = 1
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    3 Query show create table `tb1`
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
                    3 Query show fields from `tb1`
                    3 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `tb1`
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    3 Query use `gs`
                    3 Query select @@ collation_database
                    3 Query SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 'tb1'
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
                    3 Query show table status like 'user'
                    3 Query SET SQL_QUOTE_SHOW_CREATE = 1
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    3 Query show create table `user`
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
                    3 Query show fields from `user`
                    3 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `user`
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    3 Query use `gs`
                    3 Query select @@ collation_database
                    3 Query SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 'user'
                    3 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
                    3 Query UNLOCK TABLES
                    3 Quit
1> The first step: SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`; building a database derived statement;

2> The second step: show tables; get all the table names in the database, and then lock: LOCK TABLES `tb1` READ / * 32311 LOCAL * /,` user` READ / * 32311 LOCAL * /!!

                Using the lock table tb1 read local, tb2 read local, tb3 read local; statement

3> The third step: show create table 'tb1'; derived tb1 built table statement;

4> The fourth step:! Show fields from `tb1`; SELECT / * 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM` tb1`; export the data in the table;

......

5> Last derived trigger, the final end unlock tables; end.

You can see --lock-tables in a database is exported, it will export all tables in the whole process lock read local. The lock does not prevent other session read and insert.

2) - lock-all-tables for implementation:

Perform: mysqldump -uroot -p --databases gs --lock-all-tables> gs_l.sql, in view general.log:

151022 14:34:13 4 Connect root @ localhost on
                    4 Query / *! 40100 SET @@ SQL_MODE = '' * /
                    4 Query / *! 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /
                    4 Query FLUSH TABLES
                    4 Query FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
                    4 Query SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid \ _mode'
                    ... ...
                    4 Init DB gs
                    4 Query SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`
                    4 Query show tables
                    ... ... 4 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `tb1`
                    4 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    4 Query use `gs`
                    4 Query select @@ collation_database
                    ... ...
                    4 Query show fields from `user`
                    4 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `user`
                    4 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'binary'
                    4 Query use `gs`
                    4 Query select @@ collation_database
                    4 Query SHOW TRIGGERS LIKE 'user'
                    4 Query SET SESSION character_set_results = 'utf8'
                    4 Quit


It is implemented using the FLUSH TABLES; FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK; statement. In the final statement did not see to unlock.

It requests to initiate a global read lock will prevent write operations on all tables, in order to ensure data consistency. When the backup is complete, the session is disconnected, it will automatically unlock.

3) - single-transaction implementation:

Perform: mysqldump -uroot -p --databases gs --single-transaction> gs_l.sql, in view general.log:


151022 14:41:34 5 Connect root @ localhost on
                    5 Query / *! 40100 SET @@ SQL_MODE = '' * /
                    5 Query / *! 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /
                    5 Query SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
                    5 Query START TRANSACTION / *! 40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT * /
                    5 Query SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid \ _mode'
                    5 Query UNLOCK TABLES
                    ... ...
                    5 Init DB gs
                    5 Query SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`
                    5 Query SAVEPOINT sp
                    ......
                    5 Query show create table `tb1`
                    ...... 5 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `tb1`
                   ......
                    5 Query ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
                   ......
                    5 Query show create table `user`
                    ..... 5 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `user`
                    ......
                    5 Query ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
                    5 Query RELEASE SAVEPOINT sp
                    5 Quit

The basic procedure is:

1> to change the transaction isolation level: SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ

2> begin transaction:! START TRANSACTION / * 40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT * /

3> unlock tables;

4> Export building a database statement; SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`

5> to open a savepoint: SAVEPOINT sp;

6> tb1 export table structure and data;

7> ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp; rollback to savepoint;

Repeat this process for the other tables;

8> Last realease savepoint p; release savepoint;

The whole process, no locks. RR isolation level to ensure consistency in the transaction only read this data before the transaction. rollback to savepoint sp; ensures no effect on the data in the database.

4) - master-data implementation:

Perform: mysqldump -uroot -p --databases gs --master-data = 1> gs_l.sql, in view general.log:

151022 14:57:45 6 Connect root @ localhost on
                    6 Query / *! 40100 SET @@ SQL_MODE = '' * /
                    6 Query / *! 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /
                    6 Query FLUSH / *! 40101 LOCAL * / TABLES
                    6 Query FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
                    6 Query SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid \ _mode'
                    6 Query SHOW MASTER STATUS
We found --lock-all-tables as, on more than one: show master status;

5) - single-transaction and --master-data used in combination:

Perform: mysqldump -uroot -p --databases gs --master-data = 1> gs_l.sql, in view general.log:

151022 15:00:56 7 Connect root @ localhost on
                    7 Query / *! 40100 SET @@ SQL_MODE = '' * /
                    7 Query / *! 40103 SET TIME_ZONE = '+ 00:00' * /
                    7 Query FLUSH / *! 40101 LOCAL * / TABLES
                    7 Query FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK
                    7 Query SET SESSION TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL REPEATABLE READ
                    7 Query START TRANSACTION / *! 40100 WITH CONSISTENT SNAPSHOT * /
                    7 Query SHOW VARIABLES LIKE 'gtid \ _mode'
                    7 Query SHOW MASTER STATUS
                    7 Query UNLOCK TABLES
                    ......
                    7 Init DB gs
                    7 Query SHOW CREATE DATABASE IF NOT EXISTS `gs`
                    7 Query SAVEPOINT sp
                   
                    7 Query show create table `tb1`
                    7 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `tb1`
                   
                    7 Query ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
                    
                    7 Query show create table `user`
                   7 Query SELECT / *! 40001 SQL_NO_CACHE * / * FROM `user`
                   
                    7 Query ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT sp
                    7 Query RELEASE SAVEPOINT sp
                    7 Quit
Found --single-transaction used alone or in combination with --single-transaction and --master-data difference

--single-transaction and --master-data when used in combination, the export started, briefly holding a global read lock, the lock: flush data to disk, set the isolation level to RR, begin a transaction, the output binary log the location and file name, and then unlock. This ensures: Exported binary log of the show master status output location and file name and after the data is (the same lsn), so you can use it to back up and use change master with a point in time to construct a slave, a successful connection the master.

You can see here the use of twice flush tables:

FLUSH / *! 40101 LOCAL * / TABLES

FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK

The reason is that the first flush is not required lock table, the first refresh all data to disk after the second FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK when only a small amount of data will need to be flushed to disk, so the first second flush is to try to reduce secondary fush holds the lock.

11. mysqldump lock

1) - lock-tables will export all tables in the whole process lock read local. The lock does not prevent other session read and insert, but apparently blocked the update.

2) - lock-all-tables it requests to initiate a global read lock will prevent all table writes (insert, update, delete), in order to ensure data consistency. When the backup is complete, the session is disconnected, it will automatically unlock.

 

3) - When using single-transaction and --master-data binding, but also at the beginning, it will request a short-term global read lock will prevent write operations on all tables.

4) - single-transaction alone, will not have any locks. But tests show that: it also needs to be backed up on a table holding shared locks metadata lock in.

And we know that the general affairs held a row lock, as well as metadata lock shared lock. So in fact, mysqldump no matter which option you use, you will not block execution of the transaction.

Because they lock the application, there is no exclusivity. Rather than DDL, like the need to hold an exclusive lock on the metadata lock (exclusive lock). Of course, DDL will be blocked mysqldump.

mysqldump necessarily metadata lock shared lock on the table. Then, either need to read local lock (lock table tb1 read local) all backups on the table, or is needed is a global read lock on all the backup table (FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;).
     
         
       
         
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