Recently, I gave my own computer to install Debian operating system, version 7.8 stable. Debian I believe that everyone can understand, it is the foundation of Ubuntu, Ubuntu is based on Debian's unstable development. When I installed the system, which contains the open source graphics drivers can drive my AMD graphics (before Ubuntu 14.04 is not driven by need alone significantly disabled in bios), so a big heart lifted.
I had four years of experience with Linux systems, but shame is that I know nothing about Linux is still in the basic state. Since this system version, which is why I try to install every mainstream version: Ubuntu, Fedora, openSUSE, Manjaro, Chakra, Linuxmint like, how many of these systems have some problems. openSUSE on my computer has a problem (others not), Manjaro because Chinese support poor so give up, not start after installation Chakra. Fedora update too radical, with a few days to hang up (when I have no experience, so do not spray veteran, now with certainly not hanging). In April 2014, before the Internet eliminated. For a new computer, the computer is a Lenovo G490-IFI.
Although this computer is pre-installed Linux, but the Linux version is a waste, it is linpus lite, based on Fedora development, not compatible with Fedora software repository of its own depot can not be used. So I spent a night later, remove the system installed Ubuntu. The computer graphics is AMD RADEON HD 8500, wireless network card is Broadcom 43142. The latest version of the open source graphics drivers have support for this card (Lmde 201403 does not support), but the wireless LAN card is the kind of people cry.
So, I will myself write down the process of installing Debian for people who need a reference. If better suggestions, please exhibitions!
First statement: The following description, some operations there are many ways, I basically have written, graphical operation, has been ordered to operate. For starters, you can not use the command operate directly in the graphical operation. If you use the command, being careful to avoid system problems. Below command before the "#" represents the root privileges the following operations, if you do not know, you can use the graphical user, you can also learn how to use root privileges.
If you do not have experience, please must read each word carefully!
For insurance, the easy way, I burn a CD to install the system. When the CD-ROM, the interface displays Install, and other options. If you need to install another desktop, select Advanced Options below to select other desktop. See Junior English people have obsessive-compulsive disorder, please go left, select the Windows system.
The installation process is relatively Ubuntu, openSUSE and other systems is more complex, so the installation process must be read carefully every step of the prompt text and to exercise caution. After installation, it is necessary to configure the system.
If you choose to let the system automatically help your partitions, the system will prompt you to / home a separate partition. Personal strongly recommended / home separate partition, if you need to reinstall the system, you can read the previous profile after reinstalling the software does not need to configure. Of course, if the system crashes because the configuration file errors, you need to rebuild the configuration file, then delete all the profiles, personal storage files, such as documents, music, video, pictures, etc., can be from destruction.
2 System Configuration
Before configuring the system, you must refresh source software, or the software is not installed, you then worry no use. How refreshing source software, see section 2.1.
System installed, some copyright restricted plugin has been installed, the system can play audio and video mp3, mp4 and other formats, and will not be garbled problem. But flash need to manually update, see the section 2.4.
2.1 software source
For Ubuntu users, I strongly suggested the use of mirroring the territory of China, it is preferable to use primary sources. Because in my experience, the territory of China mirror source (such as Huazhong University of Science open mirror sites, etc.) package incomplete, not part of the package, but the main official source of this problem does not exist. However, after my exploration, Debian source does not have this problem, but part of the source selection, or tips Hash checksum does not match, or when prompted to install the package "Package unverified." After my exploration, Debian source China University of Technology, there is no problem.
Modify the software source, many online posts have suggested directly modify sources.list, I personally do not recommend it. Because for the novice, this sensitive operation is very vulnerable, and so need to use the command operation, to get used to the windows system novice feel Linux is difficult to use. Either Ubuntu or Debian, can be modified in a graphical interface. The method is: Synaptic Package Manager - Settings - Software Library. Referring to the list of sources that have been given to be modified.
Choose a faster source for the system software installation and updates, it is more important. However, some people do not know why I need to install the software into the DVD disc, the DVD is the default reason as a local source added to the source list. If you do not, you can "software library" setting, the cdrom: // uncheck this source. But personally recommend reservations because the Debian DVD which contains a lot of software, including DVD 1 is the most common software, configure basic desktop needs to fetch the package installed from the DVD 1. If you intend to use unstable or testing, please remove cdrom source and modify other source is the corresponding version, please refer to the official wiki, here I do not go into details.
Refresh Software source: In the Synaptic Package Manager, click the "refresh" to be in accordance with the following commands:
# Apt-get update
# Aptitide update
If you add cdrom source, then the disc is inserted in the Synaptic Package Manager, edit - add CD-ROM, or run the following command:
# Apt-cdrom add
2.2 Wireless LAN Driver
This is the most difficult, the most headaches. When I first installed, check for an afternoon of information, a variety of test methods. I was the first to refer to the official wiki, wiki but the method provided is invalid. I have Linux experience, so my action is not the slightest error. Searching for dozens of pages, the final installation is successful. Here's how:
2.2.1 Run the following command:
# Apt-get install linux-headers - $ (uname -r | sed 's, [^ -] * - [^ -] * - ,,') build-essential dkms broadcom-sta-modules
2.2.2 install the driver:
# Dpkg -i wireless-bcm43142-dkms_220.127.116.11-1_amd64.deb
This driver can be downloaded from the web. In fact, it can be manually compiled. If you want to compile a file, you can search on the Internet, because of my school network conditions particularly bad, I can not open this website (this website is our home site, but my school network blocked the large number of domestic sites, such as CSDN , linuxsir, Baidu Post bar, Baidu snapshots, bing snapshots, so I can not open this page).
2.2.3 activate the card:
# Modprobe wl
2.3 Add 32 runtime
Disclaimer: If your system is 64-bit, please read carefully, if it is 32, skip this section and continue reading 2.4.
For users Ubuntu system (such as Ubuntu, Linuxmint, etc.), as well as openSUSE, etc., the system has been installed by default 32-bit runtime. But for Debian, the system is not installed by default. The consequences of not install 32-bit runtime is that when you install wps, tips wps framework does not apply to 64-bit systems. So, here I introduce to install 32-bit runtime method:
# Dpkg --add-architecture i386
# Apt-get update
# Apt-get install ia32-libs libncurses5: i386
The default system comes with Iceweasel, this browser is actually firefox. For firefox of flash, no official upgrade version, permanent residence in 11.2, however, the official explained, they would have been provided to the 11.2 version of the flash update! ! When a system is installed, flash version is very low, so the need to manually upgrade. Upgrade method is as follows:
# Apt-get install flashplugin-nonfree
# Update-flashplugin-nonfree --install
If you're using chromium browser, you need to install pepperflashplugin. In the debian 7.8, pepperflashplugin not directly from Synaptic is installed, you need to add backports sources. However, backports source in the software part of the system upgrade might affect major version, so use it with caution. If you are using backports source, when you upgrade withheld release version, please refer to releases notes set. Pepperflashplugin installation method is as follows:
# Aptitude -t wheezy-backports install pepperflashplugin-nonfree
# Update-pepperflashplugin-nonfree --install
2.5 Input configuration
This is more troublesome. If you are networking during installation, this problem is not a problem. But if you're off the network installation, then the system just installed when, fcitx input method is not typing. Or you can type, but no input interface. The need to how to do it?
The reason is that, fcitx set of packages installed system is not complete, this may be the developer's negligence. So, would you please open the Synaptic Package Manager, enter fcitx retrieval, confirm the following packages have been installed:
After all the installation, then reboot the system is ready for use.
Special note: Do not attempt to install Sogou input method in the 7.8 stable. Sogou input method dependent fcitx version is relatively high, but lower 7.8 stable version comes fcitx, if you really want to install Sogou, use unstable or testing branches, or use ubuntu-based operating system (such as ubuntu, linuxmint etc.). Also, do not use the ppa way to update fcitx, because ppa ubuntu is the developer of the invention, does not apply to Debian, if you have chosen to use your peril.
After the above configuration steps, the basic system configuration is complete. Is not that simple than the Windows system configuration (of course, pirated version of windows systems have a ghost who gave you configure a number of plug-ins, of course, viruses)?
2.6 System Update
If you're using a gnome desktop, the desktop can, click on "software upgrade" to upgrade system software, other desktop your own to find. You can also use the following command:
# Apt-get upgrade
# Aptitude upgrade
You can also Synaptic Package Manager, click on the "mark of upgradeable packages", then click "Apply" button.
3 other software installation
I install a lot of software, DVD authoring, video production, audio production, games, online music players. Here I recommend some software, and their specific methods of operation to explore their own, or their own information search, I am not responsible for counseling.
3.1 DVD Production
Here that is not to do video, but generate DVD file format, so after burning discs can be played on a home DVD player. Of course you do not need, do not spray, you do not drive, the disc is not your thing, there is a natural need.
Recommended software: DeVeDe, the whole cultural operation, easy to understand.
3.2 Audio Production
Strongly recommend Audacity. This software is enduring.
3.3 System Cleanup
3.4 CD image, DVD, VCD Crawl
The software is also a CD burning software, is based on the KDE desktop environment to develop, but can be run on the gnome desktop, can also run on other desktop environments. Encounter such software, do not ask others, "can be used in gnome desktop?" "Is not only in the KDE desktop, ah?" Asked others will think you are an idiot, you think for.
3.5 Video Editing
I like Kdenlive, of course, it was also recommended by others. I recommend this software because it is easy to operate, multi-function.
System installed by default goldendict, but no thesaurus. Thesaurus Use thesaurus stardict details, see: http: //www.stardict.org/
3.8 office software
System installed by default libreoffice, but save it out if you are using MS Office document opened that could potentially occur malformed. There are two solutions: a pdf file output, or the use of domestic and office software WPS.
WPS just installed, you will be prompted to missing fonts, you download the fonts in ~ / .fonts folder. That is the Personal Folders Create a new folder .fonts (note in front of the small dots), the fonts into them, the system can be identified, there is no need to put the system partition (if your system has multiple users are except).
3.9 online music player
Recommended KWplayer. Address: https: //github.com/LiuLang/kwplayer-packages
3.10 Baidu network disk
Recommended bcloud. Address: https: //github.com/LiuLang/bcloud-packages
Online Video Player 3.11
Recommend "Film Assembly." But I explain: video library version Assembly dependent higher in the 7.8 stable, the library version is low, if you have chosen to use this software, please use unstable or testing branches.
Address: http: //mvgather.com/
4 security alert
4.1 Do not install 360 security guards for Linux. 360 brain residual powder to avoid me any trouble, so I will not be described in detail. For details, please read on their own "360 security guards for Linux use the results"
4.2 Be careful with unsolicited software.
4.3 system software needs to be upgraded, be sure to upgrade.
System 5 Release Update
Expected in April, Debian 8 will be appeared. 7.8 users can use the system to upgrade to 8, but because of my school network is very bad (I told you, you probably would not believe, really terrible), so I'm going to upgrade disc, download the first three DVD discs, burn for system upgrade. You can see the Debian release notes 8 will be set up and upgrade. English uncomfortable seeing people have two solutions: 1, English-Chinese dictionary reading; 2, go left, use the windows system.
I will post when I use the optical disc recording system upgrade process, so stay tuned.
6 Backup / Restore list of packages installed
6.1 backup software packages are now on the list of machines:
# Dpkg --get-selections> app-backup-list.txt
6.2 Import and reinstall all the software on the heavy machine:
# Dpkg --set-selections
# Apt-get -y update
# Apt-get dselect-upgrade
On my computer, gnome desktop recorder software bug, performance is: when the recording can not be entered, closed suspended animation. So I reinstall the system, or reinstall gnome-media package, they can not solve this problem. My guess is that the system bug, it can look forward to Debian 8 after repair. (The current version of the desktop: Gnome 3.4.2, Debian 8 will use Version: 3.14).
I have this text timeliness, when Debian 8 came out, some instructions may be out of date, so you have hope when referring to a choice, thank you!