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  Each catalog Detailed Linux
  Add Date : 2018-11-21      
  We lose Linux command, often to the next in a directory operations, so to understand the meaning of these directories is very important, to explain in detail below. Although all of a sudden can not remember, but the dictionary can be used as convenient access at any time.

A, Linux respective directories effects:

Directory name

Directory Role

/ Bin /

Storage system directory command, ordinary users and super users can execute. However, the command in / bin under in single-user mode can also be performed

/ Sbin /

Save environment settings and system-related commands, only the super user can use these commands to the system environment settings, but some command allows ordinary users to view

/ Usr / bin /

Storage system directory command, ordinary users and super users can execute. These commands and system start-up has nothing to do, can not be performed in single-user mode

/ Usr / sbin /

Root file system to store unnecessary system management commands, such as most services program. Only the superuser can use. In fact, we can note the Linux system, save all "sbin" directory command only the super user can use, "bin" directory holds commands that all users can use

Linux in the vast majority of orders are placed among the top four directories. All Linux commands are executable binary files (binary).

"/ Sbin /" in the "s" indicates that this command only root users can execute.

"/ Usr / bin /" indicates that the command can not be executed in a single-user (usr similar to Windows in safe mode, start a minimal service, mainly to repair using).

Directory name

Directory Role

/ Boot /

System startup directory to save the system boot-related files, such as kernel files and boot loader

(Grub) files

/ Dev /

Device file save location. We have said that Linux, all content saved as a file, including hardware. Well, this directory is used to save all hardware device file

/ Etc /

Configuration file save location. All the system default installation (rpm installation) service configuration files are stored in this directory all of them, such as user account and password, service startup scripts, configuration files and other common services

The third refers to the system default configuration file directory.


Directory name

Directory Role

/ Home /

Average user's home directory. When creating each user, each user must have a default login location, this location is the user's home directory, all the ordinary user's home directory is built in a / home and

The same directory as the user name. The user user1's home directory is / home / user1

/ Lib /

Library system calls save location

/ Lost + found /

When an unexpected system crash or accidental shutdown the machine, and produce some file fragments placed here. When the system startup process fsck tool checks here, and repair damaged file systems. This directory appears only in each partition, such as / lost + found is the root partition of the recovery directory, / boot / lost + found is the / boot partition backup recovery catalog

Ordinary user's home directory is / home / user of the presence of secondary directory, and the superuser's home directory directly with / a root directory exists.

In fact, each partition has its own / lost + found / directory.


Directory name

Directory Role

/ Media /

Mount directory. The system proposes is to mount media devices such as floppy disks and CD-ROM

/ Mnt /

Mount directory, the only one in the early Linux mount directory, and no breakdown. Now this directory system is recommended to mount additional equipment, such as U disk, mobile hard drives and other operating systems partitions

/ Misc /

Mount directory. The system proposes to mount a shared NFS directory service. We have just explained to mount the children's shoes should know that as long as an established empty directory can be used as a mount point. Although the system prepared three default mount directory / media, / mnt, / misc, but Where is a directory to mount any device can be determined by the administrator himself. For example, when super-brother to Linux, only the default mount directory / mnt one, so to develop a set up different directories under / mnt to mount different devices habits. Such as

/ Mnt / cdrom mount the CD, / mnt / usb mount U disk, this is possible

/ Opt /

Third-party software installed saved. This directory is the installation location and place the other software, source code software package I can be installed manually install them into this directory. However, I would be more accustomed to the software

Placed into / usr / local / directory which, that is / usr / local / directory can also be used to install software

These three directories are dedicated to system mount directory (mount point can be likened to the letter). The default is empty, because only empty directory to mount the device as a mount point.

Of course, these three directories can not, you can re-create their own mount point of the device.

Directory name

Directory Role

/ Proc /

Virtual file system, the data in this directory are not saved to the hard disk which, it is saved to memory. The main kernel to save the system, processes, external devices and network status lights. Such as

/ Proc / cpuinfo CPU information is saved, / proc / devices is to save the device driver list, / proc / filesystems is to save the file system list, / proc / net / network protocol information is saved

/ Sys /

Virtual file system. And / proc directory similar, are stored in the memory of them, mainly related information stored in the kernel

These two directories are stored in the memory of them, it is recommended not to write files to these directories, as invalid after the restart.

/ Proc / That process, keep the process running the current system, while storing some hardware information such as CPU parameters.

Directory name

Directory Role

/ Root /

Super user's home directory. Ordinary users home directory under "/ home", the home directory for the super directly in the "/" under

/ Srv /

Service data directory. After some system service is started, you can save the required data in this directory

/ Tmp /

Temporary directory. System temporary files storage directory, the directory that all users can access and write. We recommend that this directory can not save important data, each boot is best regarded the empty directory

/ Usr /

System software resources directory. Note usr is not the user's initials, but the "Unix Softwre Resource" abbreviation, so not store user data, but the storage directory system software resources. Most of the software installed on the system stored here, so in addition to / usr / bin / and / usr / sbin / both directories, I introduce some secondary directory / usr / under

/ Var /

Dynamic data storage location. Save the main cache, and log files generated by the software running

/ Tmp / The file can be empty. Recommended for beginners or directory / tmp / directory to do the exercises at home.

/ Usr / directory storage system resources. / Windows directory is similar to Windows.

Second, the server Note:

Server does not allow remote shutdown, restart only
Restart the service should be shut down
Do not run the server access high peak load command
Do not put yourself kicked out of the server to remotely configure the firewall
Specify a reasonable specification and code is updated regularly
A reasonable allocation of authority
Regular backups of important data and logs
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