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  Linux package management operations Basic entry
  Add Date : 2018-11-21      
  Most modern Unix-like operating systems provide a centralized package management mechanism to help users search for, install and manage software. The software is usually stored as "packages" at the warehouse "repository", the use and management of software packages is called package management. The basic components of Linux packages usually are: shared libraries, applications, services, and documentation.

Package management is usually not limited to one-time installation of the software, including the upgrade of the installed software package tools. "Warehouse package" will help ensure that the code has been reviewed on the system you use, by software developers or package maintainers management.

When configuring a Linux server or development environment, it is usually not limited to the use of official sources. Compared to the version of the software now quickly update iteration, although the official stable version of the software package used at the source is likely to be obsolete, but for system administrators and developers to master the basic operation of the common Linux package management is a must Preparation of common skills.

This article describes common Linux distributions for: package management and other search, install and upgrade the basic mode and quick reference, can help you quickly understand the different Linux package management skills and basic operations.

Package management system: a brief introduction

Most package management system is based on the collection of the package file, package file typically contains the compiled binary files and other resources consisting of: software, installation scripts and metadata required dependencies list.

While most of the popular Linux distributions in package management tools, methods and forms are similar, but there are still differences in the platform:

System tools format
Debian .deb apt, apt-cache, apt-get, dpkg
Ubuntu .deb apt, apt-cache, apt-get, dpkg
CentOS .rpm yum
Fedora .rpm dnf
Debian and its derivatives such as: Ubuntu, Linux Mint and Raspbian package format .deb file, APT package is the most common operation commands can: search library, install packages and their dependencies and management upgrades. And when you want to direct the installation requires the use of ready-made .deb package dpkg command.

CentOS, Fedora and Red Hat Linux uses the RPM package file series, and use the yum command management pack files and libraries to interact with the software.

In the latest Fedora release, yum command has been substituted dnf package management.

Update the local package database list

Most Linux use a local database to a remote repository list of packages available, so before you install or upgrade package at the best update the database.

System Command
Debian / Ubuntu sudo apt-get update
CentOS yum check-update
Fedora dnf check-update
Upgrade installed packages

In the absence of package management, to upgrade and maintain the Linux software has been installed in the latest version is a huge project, administrators and users have to manually track the upstream version of the software changes and safety warnings. After the package management system with just a few commands you can keep the software up to date.

System Command Remarks
Debian / Ubuntu sudo apt-get upgrade upgrade installed packages only
 sudo apt-get dist-upgrade packages can be added or removed to meet the new dependency.
CentOS sudo yum update
Fedora sudo dnf upgrade
Find / Search Packages

Most Linux desktop version provides users can search for and install the software package interface, which is the best way to find and install software. But for the pursuit of efficiency and server administrators use the command-line tool to find / search software package is the right path.

System Command Remarks
Debian / Ubuntu apt-cache search search content
CentOS yum search searches
 yum search all searches search everything, including the package description.
Fedora dnf search searches
 dnf search all searches search everything, including the package description.
View an information package

Before you decide which package is installed, we often need to see a detailed description of the package. Documentation package usually includes: the package name, version number and list of dependencies and other metadata, you can use the following command.

System Command Remarks
Debian / Ubuntu apt-cache show package name displays the local cache of information about the package
 dpkg -s package name displays the current status of the installation package
CentOS yum info package names
 Since yum deplist package names listed in the package
Fedora dnf info package names
 Since dnf repoquery -requires package names listed in the package
Installation package from the depot

Once we know the name of a package later, you can use the following command to install the package from the depot.

Debian / Ubuntu sudo apt-get install package names
 sudo apt-get install package 1 package 2 ... install all packages listed
 sudo apt-get install -y package names directly without being prompted to install
CentOS sudo yum install package names
 sudo yum install package 1 package 2 ... install all the packages listed
 sudo yum install -y package names directly without being prompted to install
Fedora sudo dnf install package names
 sudo dnf install package 1 package 2 ... install all packages listed
 sudo dnf install -y package names directly without being prompted to install
Installation package directly from the local file system

Many times during the test or after we get the package directly where it is needed directly from a package from a local file system. Debian and derived systems can be installed using dpkg, CentOS and Fedora system and yum install dnf command.

System Command Remarks
Debian / Ubuntu sudo dpkg -i .deb package names
 sudo apt-get install -y gdebi && sudo gdebi .deb package names use gdebi retrieve the missing dependencies
CentOS sudo yum install .rpm package names
Fedora sudo dnf install .rpm package names
Remove installed package

Since the package manager knows which files are provided by which the package, so after you uninstall unneeded software packages can usually get a clean system.

System Command Remarks
Debian / Ubuntu sudo apt-get remove package names
 sudo apt-get autoremove automatically remove unwanted packages known
CentOS sudo yum remove package names
Fedora sudo dnf erase package names
Well, this article as a way to common Linux distributions package management basic operations are introduced to help the novice Getting faster and faster you get started when you switch Linux distributions.
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