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  Linux shared libraries .so file name and Dynamic Link
  Add Date : 2018-11-21      
  In Linux .so file is dynamically linked product
Understood as a shared library provides a variety of performance function set, provides a standard interface to the external
Linux naming system shared library rules

The major version number: incompatibilities between different version numbers
Minor version number: Incremental upgrades backwards compatible
Release Number: bug fixes and minor version corresponds to performance does not affect compatibility
Linux shared libraries are not always in the format
    For example GLibc shared library named: libc-x.y.z.so
    The dynamic linker is GLibc part, use ld-x.y.z.so named
    libm (math library), etc.

SO-NAME mechanism
Systems and procedures to link shared library format is generally: libname.so.x
Generally is a carton system the same major version number, minor version number of the same name as the highest shared library, the purpose is to ensure that the latest version compatible with the premise
Stored in the executable file (Linux for ELF files) related field is SO-NAME
When the shared library upgrade, there are about two cases:
1) major version number unchanged, indicating shared libraries just do incremental upgrade (to ensure that all the original does not change, add a new interface based on this), it does not affect the validity of the previous program run
    In this case, the original version does not require the presence of all replace the existing older version (minor version number is relatively low) file with the new shared library file, then run ldconfig [later speaks] it
2) major version number change, then upgrade when you want to keep the original old version of the shared library (for compatibility with this version since the original shared library executables), and the need to save the new version of the shared library

In Linux ldconfig
When the system is installed or updated when a shared library needs to be updated soft links and the dynamic linker to find the file
So it should promptly run ldconfig
ldconfig role is to go through all of the directory to save the shared library / lib / usr / lib, etc., depending on the version update soft link actual shared library
When GCC compiled using shared libraries in the form of relatively simple, it does not need to spell SO-NAME, etc.
gcc -o hello hello.c -lNAME
Using the above form can be linked to libNAME.so.x.y.z (System version)
The dynamic linker sequence or find the shared object loaded in the following order
1) Path specified by the environment variable LD_LIBRARY_PATH
2) /etc/ld.so.cache path specified by the path to cache file
3) The default shared directory to / usr / lib and then / lib
Which is a LD_LIBRARY_PATH environment variable, LD_LIBRARY_PATH when specifying a program
The dynamic linker to find shared libraries, will first start looking from the specified path
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